Science, History & Knowledge

Science has always been one of the main factors allowing a civilization to grow and evolve. As time passed, science permitted the realization of new devices and the acquirement of new knowledge.

It was during the Renaissance period; however that scientific knowledge grew, due to the invention of the paper-press, allowing an easier access to more books. Knowledge was no longer reserve to monks or specific people. Of course science was always on our side. Scientific advancement has always been directly linked to the disproval of the previous theory and acknowledging all possible ones. In those times, scientists were sometime killed or imprisoned for thinking differently than the establish concept. It leads to believe that science might have advance more rapidly if science had remained objective and separated from religious beliefs.

Even if the Renaissance period was a fructuous time for scientific advancement, science will really pick up its speed in the 20th century with the previous arrival of the industrialisation. In the 17th and 18th centuries, science was used to acquire new knowledge and more theoretical advancement. This knowledge was mainly share between scholars and universities.* They them-selves declared that the advancement of scientific knowledge was neutral and could not be considered good or bad, since they were not concerned with practicalities*. On the other side, there was industrial research, which was the exact opposite. Their main goal was the technological advancement and the results were not kept by scientists, but companies hoping to make money. It is from this application of science that ethical problem emerged.

Since the 20th century, there were many changes in the relation between academic (theoretical) and industrial knowledge.* Nowadays, those two types of knowledge can be very intrinsically linked together making it essential to evaluate the situation and the ethical aspect of any scientific researches.

*http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1084045/
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